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Investigations into businesses

The Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada (OPC) conducts independent and impartial investigations into the personal information handling practices of businesses subject to the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA).

The OPC publishes a selection of case summaries and findings from its investigations to provide concrete examples of how PIPEDA applies to the day-to-day management of personal information by businesses.

For each case, the Office indicates the outcome using a set of defined terms for findings and dispositions.

For more information about the complaint and investigation process, read How the OPC Enforces PIPEDA.

Note: Complainants are not named in the summaries or reports. The organizations are not identified unless the Privacy Commissioner of Canada has deemed it to be in the public interest to do so.

Disclaimer: Typographical errors have been corrected from the original version of the report of findings. They are indicated in [brackets].

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PIPEDA Report of Findings #2013-010

In response to a case of a teen who was a victim of online impersonation, Facebook agrees to help non-users, on a case-by-case basis, reinstate their on-line reputation

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Facebook agrees to help non-users, on a case-by-case basis, reinstate their on-line reputation

...the importance of educating youth and parents about the potential misuses of Internet technology... presence. This case reiterates the importance of educating youth and parents about the misuses... with the reputational harm to her young daughter who was the victim of impersonation on Facebook...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Case Summary #2010-007

Test administrator revises measures aimed at preventing exam fraud

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Test administrator revises measures aimed at preventing exam fraud

...to the requirement that students enrolled at Canadian universities be fingerprinted in order... fingerprints from students in Canada. The company agreed to do so, but stated... in 2006, in response to concerns about fingerprinting expressed by students, data-protection...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Case summary #2011-012

GMAT Test-taker Objects to Palm-Vein Scanning

PIPEDA Report of Findings: GMAT Test-taker Objects to Palm-Vein Scanning

...the GMAT and 2) to ensure that the test scores sent to schools accurately reflect the students’ abilities... identification system in 2006, after concerns were voiced about fingerprinting, by students, data...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Report of Findings #2012-001

Social networking site for youth, Nexopia, breached Canadian privacy law

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Social networking site for youth, Nexopia, breached Canadian privacy law

...Social networking site for youth, Nexopia, breached Canadian privacy law Commissioner’s Findings - PIPEDA Report of Findings #2012-001: Social networking site for youth, Nexopia, breached Canadian privacy law Social networking site for youth, Nexopia, breached Canadian privacy law PIPEDA Report...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Report of Findings # 2012-008

Summer camp provided background-check information about former camper without consent

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Summer camp provided background-check information about former camper without consent

...The complainant attempted to enrol her child in a summer camp. She submitted her online application and spoke with the prospective camp’s director, who did not accept her child right away... her child had previously attended had disclosed her child’s personal information to the prospective camp...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Report of Findings #2012-007

Summer camp's background check of new camper required consent

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Summer camp's background check of new camper required consent

...of Findings #2012-007 The complainant attempted to enrol her child in a summer camp. She submitted... with our Office, alleging that the prospective camp's director had collected her child's personal information from a camp her child had previously attended without her consent in order to make a decision...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Report of Findings #2011-008

Daycare Centre Modified Webcam Monitoring to Increase Privacy Protection

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Daycare Centre Modified Webcam Monitoring to Increase Privacy Protection

...with the Ministry of Children and Youth Services in Ontario revealed that of the 4,784 licensed child care... of very young children. Examples of important contractual safeguards in this context can include... as users of the webcam service. The younger the student, the greater the participation by the parents. 8...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Report of Findings #2009-023

Email regarding vehicle repair complaint used for marketing without consent

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Email regarding vehicle repair complaint used for marketing without consent

..., number of children, home ownership, mortgages, addresses, telephone numbers, vehicles, and detailed...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Report of Findings #2009-008

Report of Findings: CIPPIC v. Facebook Inc.

PIPEDA Report of Findings: Complaint Filed by the Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic (CIPPIC) against Facebook Inc. under PIPEDA.

..., the task force identifies, evaluates, and proposes solutions for online risks for children and youth. 27... SNSs safer for European youth. In conjunction with the agreement, the European Commission issued... identifiable information from children under 13 without verifiable parental consent. In requesting specific...

Date of findings:
PIPEDA Case Summary #2009-004

No Consent Required for Using Publicly Available Personal Information Matched with Geographically Specific Demographic Statistics

PIPEDA Report of Findings: No Consent Required for Using Publicly Available Personal Information Matched with Geographically Specific Demographic Statistics

...with children, propensity of home ownership, median home value and dominant period of construction... home value, is used to determine factors such as the probability of children, and marital status... and whether the individual has children.  Income was focused on as it is the most sensitive variable...

Date of findings:

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