||This project will develop a literature review of smartphone applications with respect to end user privacy, along with an annotated bibliography. The researchers will use handsets from four dominant smartphone platforms to conduct their study. Using each platform’s smartphone application store, the platform’s 100 most popular English-language applications will be acquired and examined to determine their risks to end-user privacy. The researchers will also use the findings resulting from this study to conduct six in-person seminars and online webinars. The knowledge translation activities will focus on vulnerable populations, including youth, persons with disabilities and victims of violence.